Skin Care

Navigating the skin care world can be tricky. How do you know what products to choose, and how do you get your skin to look and feel healthy? On that note, what does it even mean to have healthy skin? I’ve gathered some of our best advice below to help you get familiar with your skin and the many different ways to cleanse, treat and manage it. Use this as your informal guide to healthy skin, and reach out to us in the comments section if you have any questions.

Most of us already know that good skin care involves more than just washing your face, but once you get past exfoliators and moisturizers, you might begin to feel a little lost. There are so many types of products out there, and there’s no way to craft the right routine for yourself if you don’t even know what these products do.

If you’re scratching your head wondering what the difference is between face oil and serum—and how the heck you use either of them—stress no more. Dermatologists Dr. Margarita Lolis and Dr. Debra Jaliman are here to give you the rundown and all the types of products for skin health, so you know what they are, what they do and how to properly use them.

1. Cleanser

Most dermatologists agree it is important to cleanse the face twice daily to get bacteria, dirt and pollutants off your skin. However, there are different types of cleansers that are more ideal for certain types of skin.

“The common mistakes people make are using the same product in the morning and at night and not getting a product that is ideal for their skin type,” says Dr. Lolis. “For example, someone prone to breakouts may use a cleanser with salicylic acid only to find it has a reverse effect. When skin is dried out, it increases oil production, which can only make a breakout more prevalent. The best approach would be to see a dermatologist for a skin assessment and a product recommendation that is most suitable for your skin type.”

2. Exfoliator

Exfoliating is important, as it helps to take dead skin cells off the surface of the skin and to give your skin a glow, and it should be done once or twice a week. Many exfoliants contain ingredients such as rice enzymes, sugar granules and walnut shells, which help to revive dull skin. “If oily skin and breakouts are a concern, try one with charcoal,” says Lolis. “If your skin is sensitive, opt for an exfoliating mask as opposed to a scrub, which can be irritating.

3. Serum

“Serums usually contain antioxidants, which help fight free radical damage,” says Dr. Jaliman. “They can also contain anti-aging ingredients such as retinols and peptides, which stimulate collagen production.” Because they penetrate deep into the skin, these products are great for hydrating dry skin. They are best used after your cleanser, and they can be used underneath moisturizer to treat the skin while sleeping.

4. Face Oil

Nutrient-filled face oils help to build a resilient layer for your skin, no matter your skin type. They can be very hydrating, which makes them especially useful for those with dry skin. “Argan oil and vitamin E are great for pretty much every skin type and issue,” says Lolis. “Ideally, add two or three drops to a moisturizer or serum. For acne-prone skin, tea tree oil will work very well and vitamin C oil will help with any scarring.”

5. Sunscreen

Sunscreens are essential for protecting your skin from UV damage, no matter the season. Luckily, there are plenty of ways to apply sunscreen beyond just the typical bottle. “Everyone should be using a moisturizer with SPF even in winter,” says Lolis. “If you’re outside or live in warmer climates, it’s even more important to protect your face. The key is to know your skin type and use sunscreen that is a suitable fit. Some sunscreens are greasy and may clog pores. This is why it’s best to use a moisturizer formulated to address a particular skin issue that has sunscreen built in.”

6. Moisturizer

To help keep your skin looking younger, Lolis recommends using moisturizer from head to toe. “The face, neck and décolletage should get moisturizer twice daily as should elbows, knees and feet,” she says. There are many kinds of moisturizers available for different skin types, but if you really want to keep your skin hydrated, look for moisturizers that contain glycerin or hyaluronic acid, suggests Jaliman.

7. Chemical Peel

Chemical peels remove the outer layer of the skin, which means they tend to go deeper to remove excess dead skin cells than exfoliators. They usually contain glycolic, salicylic or lactic acids. “Use it once every two weeks, but avoid these if you are prone to rosacea and eczema,” says Jaliman. Chemical peels tend to be more intense and typically are done by a professional, but there are also at-home DIY peels available to address things such as acne scars, wrinkles, sun damage and hyperpigmentation.

8. Toner

Toner can be used after a cleanser twice a day to remove excess traces of makeup or other residue from the skin. “Toners shrink pores and restore skin to its natural pH balance,” says Lolis. “This is important because when our pH levels are thrown out of whack due to soaps and chemicals in cleansers, oil production increases, causing a cycle of breakouts.” Those with sensitive skin should use an an alcohol-free toner.

9. Face Mask

There are many different types of masks on the market, ranging from hydrating, to drying, and even brightening, which makes them useful for all skin types. “Done weekly, you’ll see a change to skin, and breakouts will have a chance to dry up and heal,” says Lolis. “I am also a fan of using soothing masks on the cheeks and then a clarifying mask on the forehead, chin and jawline. It’s okay to mix it up. The key is to apply a mask to clean, exfoliated skin so there isn’t anything blocking it from penetrating the skin.”

10. Eye Cream

Eye creams tend to be formulated for specific eye area issues such as puffiness, wrinkles and dark circles. “There are some creams that tackle several issues at once, and these contain things like caffeine, glycerine, camomile, hyaluronic acid, antioxidants and peptides,” says Lolis. “Eye creams are specially formulated to penetrate the finer skin around the eyes.” They can be used once or twice a day, but look for retinol or peptide eye creams to use at night, as they stimulate collagen production, suggests Jaliman.